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Learning Center Library Guide: APA Citation Help

What is an APA Citation?

APA is a style guide for citations from the American Psychological Association (APA). 

Citation style guides show you what information to include in each citation and how to organize your list of citations.

APA citation style is primarily used for research papers in nursing and social sciences classes although some instructors in other subject areas also use APA.

What is a Citation?

A citation is reliable way to lead your reader back to the materials you used in your research.

A citation gives credit to an author for their research, writings and ideas.

Most citations include information such as

  • author's name,
  • title of the book, article or website, 
  • name of the magazine or journal, 
  • date published or updated
  • if the information was found in print or online

When you use citations you are

  • giving credit to the authors of material you used,
  • avoiding plagiarism,
  • showing that you know how to use information well,
  • creating credibility for your paper by providing good quality sources and good quality citations for them.

How Do I Deal With? Quick Answers for Citation Problems

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Examples of APA Citations and Guidelines for Citations

APA Reference Page or List of APA Citations

How do I use APA In Text Citations in my paper?

There are two parts to an In Text citation. 

  • the brief information in the text of the paper
  • the full citation on the Works Cited page

The brief information must lead your reader to the full citation on the References page.

For APA In-Text citations, you need three pieces of information when your writing includes someone else’s words, ideas, or facts.

1. For print sources (books and articles)

  •  the author's last name
  • date of publication
  •  the page number (if available)

2. For web based or media sources include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (for example: author name, article name, website name, film name) and the date.


Models and examples of APA in-text citations

APA Citation Help -The Basics  from the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)     

APA Citation Help - The Details  from the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)  

Citation Help for APA, 6th Edition: In-text Citations from the College of St.Scholastica 

In Text Citation Using APA Style: from Douglas College Learning Centre
      (Klassen, C., J. Robinson and  M. Stainsby. (2012) "In Text Citation Using MLA Style." Douglas College. Douglas College.  Retrieved 24 Sept. 2018,

NoodleTools Annotated Bibliography

Your List of APA Citations - The APA References List

Quick Hints for a List of APA Citations

  • List your citations on a new page at the end of your paper.
  • References - Use References as the title for your list of citations (not Citations, Bibliography or Works Cited)
  • Citations are organized alphabetically by the last name of the author of your article, book or other source.
         (Check the APA How Do I Deal With...? page if you don't have an author)
  • Citations are formatted with a hanging indent.  Watch this APA Hacks video for "how-to" instructions on hanging indents.

When to use In-Text Citations

What should be documented?
Your essay or paper needs to have evidence, or support, or proof of the points you are making. The main evidence you use in a literature essay comes in the form of ideas or words from the text you are analyzing. Below is a list of the situations where you should acknowledge the sources of information you use.

A) WHEN QUOTING: if you quote an author's exact words

Walker states that "womanist is to feminist as purple is to lavender," but does not stop at defining herself as a feminist (173).

B) WHEN PARAPHRASING: if you use your own words, but you use another author's ideas.

The aristocratic heroic and kinship values of Germanic society continued to inspire both clergy and laity during Christian times (Smith 323).

C) WHEN SUMMARIZING: if you summarize one or more points in another author's writing.

The Renaissance was seen as a time of upheaval of traditional art forms and societal values, paving the way for a more enlightened and broad view of the foreign world (Rahemtulla 988).

D) STATISTICS OR FACTS: if you use a fact or a statistic that is not common knowledge.

The Dutch Crown’s overseas territories were vastly increased in 1667 (Charland 301).


Klassen, C., J. Robinson and  M. Stainsby. "In Text Citation Using MLA Style." Douglas College. Douglas College. 2012. Web.  22 July 2015.



APA in Minutes - In Text Citations

Humber Libraries. (2013, June 3). APA in Minutes: In-Text Citations [Video File]. Retrieved from       (APA Citation)

APA Citation Puzzles